PART B: INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
INDIAN ECONOMY AT THE TIME OF INDEPENDENCE
Q.1. What was the condition of agriculture sector at the time of Independence?
Ans: 1) Low level of agricultural productivity, 2. High dependence on Monsoon, 3. Lack of Proper Input, 4. Lack of storage facility, 5. Lack of Agricultural marketing.
Q.2 What was the condition of Industrial sector at the time of Independence?
Ans: (i) Discriminatory Tariff Policy, (ii) Competition from machine by the handicraft man, (iii) New Patterns of Demand, (iv) More market for British Good, (v) Lack of public and private finance for industrial sector.
Q.3. What was the condition of foreign trade under the British rule?
Ans: (i) Due to discriminative tariff policy adopted by the British Government, India became net exporter of raw materials and primary products.
(ii) Composition of exports and imports showed the backwardness of Indian economy.
(iii) Surplus profit made and account of foreign trade during the British rule was distributed on administrative and as well as on war expenses.
Q. 4. Mention the demographic profile during the British rule.
Ans: 1) High birth and High death rate implied low survival rate. 2) Life expectancy was as low as 32 years which shows the lack of health care facilities, lack of awareness as well as lack of means for health care. 3) Literacy rate was as low as 16 percent, which reflects the social and economic backwardness of the country.